Speech sounds

How we say sounds and put sounds together into words. Other words for these problems are articulation or phonological disorders, apraxia of speech, or dysarthria


How well we understand what we hear or read and how we use words to tell others what we are thinking. In children, this may be a receptive or expressive langauge disorder. In adults this problem may be called aphasia.

Feeding & swallowing

How well we suck, chew, and swallow food and liquid. A swallowing disorder may lead to poor nutrition, weight loss, and other health problems. This is also called dysphagia, and can be present in preterm infants or adults post surgery/a stroke


How well we read and write. People with speech and language disorders may also have trouble reading, spelling, and writing.


Also called stuttering, is how well speech flows. Someone who stutters may repeat sounds, like t-t-t-table, use "um" or "uh," or pause a lot when talking. Many young children will go through a time when they stutter, but most outgrow it.